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مُساهمة  حسين الدياربي في الإثنين 12 أبريل 2010, 6:23 pm

Marine organisms
Marine Biology is the scientific study of living organisms in the oceans or Almnatqsearip or other brackish water. Given that in biology there are many organisms, families and races that live in some types of sea and others on the ground, marine biology classifies species based on the environment and not on classification. And different marine biology marine ecology as marine ecology focuses on how organisms interact with each other and with the environment either biology is the study of the animal itself.
And is a huge resource of marine life, providing food, medicines, raw materials, as well as to assist them in supporting recreation and tourism in all over the world. Basically, the marine life helps determine the nature of our planet. Marine Organisms to contribute significantly to the cycle of oxygen, and involved in regulating Earth's climate. Beaches are partly protected from the problem of marine life, so that some marine organisms help to renew the cycle of the earth.
And covers the biology of marine organisms a great deal, ranging from micro-organisms, like most zooplankton and phytoplankton to the great whales, which reach a length of 48 meters (125 feet) as they say.
And the citizen studied by marine biology include everything from the classes of small surface-attached organisms and material non-living as a result of surface tension between the oceans and atmosphere, including deep trenches deep, and sometimes ye depth of 10,000 meters or more below the ocean surface . Studying the citizen such as coral reefs, kelp forests, areas, and ponds, and muddy bottoms, and sand and rocky, open ocean surface, where solid objects are rare and can not see more than surface water.
And there are many forms of life on Earth exist in the oceans. But the rate is still unknown.There are many types of organisms in the oceans to be discovered. While the oceans are about 71% of the Earth's surface, given the depth of the population size of the citizen is the largest at about 300 times the size of the citizen on the ground.
Many marine species are of economic importance to humans, such as food fish. It is understood that the marine leisure and other objects associated with some very fundamental ways. The number of people interested in knowing what respect the relationship between life at sea and the life cycles of the task is growing rapidly, especially with new discoveries being made almost every day. Include the life cycles of these so the rule (such as the carbon cycle) and air (such as breathing earth, and the transfer of energy through the ecosystem types, including the oceans). There are large areas beneath the surface of the ocean is still unexplored effectively.
Sub-areas
The marine ecosystem is large, and thus there are many sub-disciplines in marine biology.Most specialties include the examination of animal groups from a particular aspect. (Ie Psychology invertebrate zoology and ichthyology).
And include other sub-fields of study the physical consequences of continued immersion in the sea and the ocean in general, and adapt to the environment is salty, and the effects of changing various characteristics of the oceans on marine life. It examines a branch of Marine Biology relations between the oceans and life in the oceans, global warming and environmental issues (such as carbon dioxide displacement).
Focused on the latest marine biotechnology greatly Alaazavipsearip molecules, especially proteins, which can be used in medicine or engineering. Marine environments are home to many exotic biological materials that may inspire biomolecular materials.
Fields similar
Marine Biology is the branch of oceanography and is closely linked to biology. It also includes many of the ideas of ecology. Flag of fisheries and preserve the marine environment can be considered one of the subsections of Marine Biology, as well as environmental studies.
Forms of life
Microscopic life
There are many types of life's little beneath the surface of the sea and some are still not understood or fully informed. For example, is barely addressed the role of viruses in marine ecosystems even in the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Alkubeybod
But more attention was given to the role of phytoplankton because of their status because they are the most important producers, multi-choice on earth. Classified as phytoplankton to the cyanobacteria (also called algae / bacteria, blue-green), and various types of algae (red, green, brown, yellow and green), Diatom, binaries whip, Alhnderp, Kokulecvuorid, Protista, Krisovit, algae, green Pracejnovi and flagellate Sulaikip / 0 ).
And zooplankton tend to be somewhat larger, but not all are microscopic. Many of the priorities are zooplankton, including Denovlagelit, Zovlagelit, foraminifera, and Alradiolria. Some of these (such as Dinovlajiat) are also Plankton Plant; often difficult to distinguish between the plant / animal living in the very small. Other plankton organisms include hollow (Allahacuyat), gels Almctip, Katujnaths (a type of zooplankton), (0) mollusks, arthropods Alo'rourkordiat, cyclins, such as polychaetes and many of the larger animals begin their lives Kaawalq before they become big enough to take familiar forms. Examples are the larva e fish and starfish.
Plants and algae
Spread of plant life on a large scale and very diverse under the sea. A Microalgae Aldoiiep a greater proportion of world output light of all the forest land combined. Most of the place occupied by sub plants on the ground is occupied by micro-algae in the oceans, such as Aseragsom and sea grass, which is known as seaweed, which creates kelp forest. There are plants other than algae that live in the sea, often in shallow water, such as seaweed (with examples of Eelgrass, Zostera, and turtle grass, Thelasia has adapted to these plants with a high degree of salinity of the ocean environment. The intertidal zone is also a good place to find plant life In the sea, where mangrove trees grow grass or grass Alchordo beach. and provide micro-algae and plants, important habitat for life, and sometimes the whereabouts and status of fish larvae feed on invertebrates and larger.
Marine invertebrates
As well as on land, invertebrates constitute a large part of life forms in the sea. Include invertebrates Searipknydaria such as jellyfish, sea anemone; Ktinovora; worm sea, including the groups Blatyhelmnths, Nimirtia, Aneleda, Sibounkola, Ekra, Kaytu_natha and Voronida; molluscs, including oysters, squid, octopus; arthropods including crustaceans; Burevira; and living freely; and Aikenordemenyat like a star; and Alorrukrudiat.
A crown of polychaetes.
Fish
Occupied by fish and jobs are very different from other large biological organisms. Fish anatomy includes two heart chambers, and Alobrikolom, and secretory cells produce Aalmkhat, and swim bladder, scales, fins, lips and eye. Fish and breathes by extracting oxygen from water through gills. And working to pay the fins and the balance of fish in the water.
Known fish include: sardines, anchovies, fish Ling may, clown fish or fish Alanimo, and bottom fish which include halibut or ling cod fish. Include predator sharks and barracudas.
Reptiles
Include reptiles that live in the sea or visit the sea down the sea turtles, sea snake, turtle, and marine iguana, and the saltwater crocodile. Most of the living marine reptiles, except for some sea snakes, are laying and need to return to earth to lay their eggs. Thus most of the species, except for sea turtles, spend most of their lives in or near the ground and not in the ocean. In spite of the adaptations of marine, please most of the sea snakes shallow water not far from the earth, and around the islands, especially water that are protected to some extent, as well as near the estuaries of some marine reptiles extinct, such as Alaiktissour, has grown to be one of the mammals that is, they did not require Back to Earth.
Seabirds
Seabirds are species of birds that are adapted to living in the marine environment, including albatrosses, penguins, Gannet, and Auk. Although they spend most of their lives in the ocean, but the types of birds such as the gull can often be found on the interior of miles deep.
Marine mammals
There are five main types of marine mammals. Whales include whale Almthelm (from monotonous Aodotuket), such as the sperm whale, dolphin and porpoise also include baleen whales, whale (from the monotonous Almcetkit, such as gray whales, humpback and blue whales.
Brides include manatees, and dugongs, and Stellar sea cow extinct.
Sea otters.
Seals (of the family Alfokidat, sea lion (Alaotharidat of the family - which also include fur seals), and walrus (family Adobinedat) and are all types of seals.
Sea Otter is a member of the family Mostylidat, which includes weasels and badgers
Polar bears (from a family Alorsidat and is sometimes considered marine mammals because they rely on the sea.
Pacific Citizen
Coral reefs
Include coral some circumstances, the most intense and diverse in the world. Species best known coral reefs are tropical coral reefs found in most tropical waters, however, can also be the presence of coral reefs in cold water. Coral reefs are built by corals and other animals deposit of calcium, and are usually on top of a rocky outcrop in the bottom of the ocean. The coral can grow also on other surfaces, which made it possible to create an artificial reef. The coral reefs also support the society a terrible life, including coral reefs themselves, and Zzouzinteli symbiotic, and tropical fish and many other organisms.
And Marine Biology focused much attention on the coral reefs and the El Nino weather phenomenon. In 1998, the coral reefs, the process of ovulation, which occurs once in a thousand years, where she died of vast areas of coral reefs across the Earth due to warmer sea surface temperature was higher than usual. Some reefs are recovering, but scientists say that 58% of the world's coral reefs are now endangered, and there are predictions that global warming could exacerbate this trend.
Deep-sea trenches
The deepest oceanic trenches registered so far is the Mariana Trench, near the Philippines in the Pacific with a depth of 10924 meters (35,838 feet). In such a depth, water pressure is great and there is no sunlight, but some types of life still exist. Were seen young flounder (family Alsoledatwalrobian by the crew of the American bathyscaphe Trieste to the bottom when it sank in 1960.
Other notable oceanic trenches include the valley of Monterrey, in the eastern Pacific, the Tonga Trench in the southwest at a depth of 10.882 meters (+35,702 ft), and the Philippines and Puerto Rico Trench at a depth of 8605 m (28,232 ft), and Romansh trench at a depth of 7760 m (24450 ft), and trench Wolfram in the basin of the Arctic Ocean at a depth of 4665 m (15,305 ft), and the Java trench at a depth of 7450 m (24,442 ft), and the South Sandwich Trench at a depth of 7235 m (23,737 feet).
In general, the borders of the deep sea in the area Affuik, at which point where sunlight loses its ability to move through the water. I have many life forms that live at these depths the ability to generate their own light.
And concentrated most of the organisms on seamounts that rise from the depths, where fish and other marine life gather to breeding and Altaliev. Centers and the proliferation of these exits along the [[edge of mid-ocean / 0) is an oasis, as do Oddadha: cold seeps. | The edge of mid-ocean / 0) is an oasis, as do Oddadha: cold seeps.]] Supports these places of living is uniqueMany kind of new microbes and other forms of life has been discovered in these locations.
The open ocean
The open ocean are relatively unproductive because of lack of food, but it is too broad, they produce more primary production in all. Is to provide a large part of the area Affuik powered by the open ocean in the form of residues. The open ocean consists mostly of jellyfish predators such as Mola Mola.
Tides and the coast
Exposed intertidal zone, and those areas close to the beach, down to the tide, where covered in full. There are a wide range of life in this region.
Citizen of the beach stretching from the upper intertidal areas to the area where wild plants take the lead. Can be present in any place under the water's surface is unevenly each day to the often very rare. Many of the species here are scavengers, living on remnants of marine life that is washed up on shore. Many wild animals benefit from the beach and tidal habitats. A subset of organisms in these habitats are bore and grinding rocks exposed through the process of bio-degradable.
Distribution factors
One of the topics of active research in marine biology is to discover and map the life cycle of different types of objects, and where to spend their time. Marine biologists study how they affect ocean currents, and the phenomenon of the tides and other factors peripheral to many life forms in the oceans, including growth, distribution and welfare. Did not become technically possible only recently with advances in GPS and the invention of the latest optical devices used under water.
And spend most strains of oceanic life in specific places, or in nests or in the other, a long time in the process of creation, and maturity to each other. Scientists do not know very little about the species and where you spend many different stages in their life cycle. For example, it is still largely unknown to travel where sea turtles and some sharks. Tracking devices do not work in cases of certain objects, the oceans are not friendly to technology. This is important for scientists and fishermen, they found that restricting commercial fishing in one small area there can be a significant impact in maintaining a healthy fish community in a wider area to some extent.

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